1. Describe the process of protein synthesis. You answer must include the two major steps, all major enzymes and molecules involved, where each step occurs in the cell and a summary of what happens in each step. (4 marks)
There are two processes that occur during protein synthesis, transcription and translation. In transcription, DNA is used as a template to make the messenger RNA (mRNA). Transcription occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. However, translation occurs when the mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to a ribosome in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. During translation, the genetic code is read by tRNA and the protein is synthesized according to the message present on mRNA. There are three steps in translation: initiation, elongation and termination. Initiation: always starts with the AUG codon therefore, it is always the first amino acid to be added. Elongation: are amino acids that are added on one at time to the growing protein chain. The tRNA associates the anticodon to the codon of the mRNA and transports each time the correspondent amino acid, the peptidyl transferase forms the peptide bonds between amino acids.
Termination: is when there is a stop codon (UGA, UAG and UAA) the tRNA recognizes it, and it released and the translation ends.
I have mad the necessary suggestions to my answer. Is this correct now? Please let me know. Have a great day.
Protein synthesis involve two major steps - Transcription and Translation.
1. Transcription - It is the process in which mRNA is formed from one of the strands of DNA (called the template/antisense/non-coding strand). It takes place in the nucleus of a cell. The main enzyme involved here is RNA Polymerase (DNA dependent RNA Polymerase). Steps involved in this process are -
As the polymerase reach the terminator region, transcription terminates and the nascent mRNA is released. This mRNA undergoes splicing, capping and tailing. Now the fully processed mRNA moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
2.Translation - It is the process during which protein is synthesised from mRNA. The steps involved in this process are -
Thank you so much for helping me out with this question. Have a great day.