The term protein biosynthesis is sometimes used to refer exclusively to the translation process, but more often means a multi-step process:
1. Transcription is the process of RNA synthesis using DNA as a template.
2. Processing - molecular mechanisms associated with the "maturation" of different types of RNA, includes capping, polyadenylation, splicing.
3. Mature mRNA transport from nucleus to cytoplasm where the ribosomes are located.
4. Translation is the synthesis of proteins from amino acids catalyzed by the ribosome on a template RNA (mRNA) matrix.
5. Some proteins require additional post-translational modification to reach their active state. Post-translational modification extends the functional composition of the protein by additionally joining such groups as acetate (acetylation) or phosphate (phosphorylation), as well as sugars (glycosylation) and lipids.