1. Recognition of the start codon (AUG), followed by the joining of aminoacylated methionine to tRNA and assembly of ribosome from large and small subunits.
2. Recognition of the current codon of the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA (complementary interaction of the mRNA codon and the tRNA anticodon).
3. Attachment of the tRNA-borne amino acid to the end of a growing polypeptide chain.
4. Movement of the ribosome along the matrix, followed by the release of the tRNA molecule.
5. Aminoacylation of the released tRNA molecule by the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
6. The addition of the following aminoacyl-tRNA molecule is analogous to step (2).
7. Movement of the ribosome by the mRNA molecule to the stop codon
8. Recognition of the stop codon and detachment of the newly synthesized protein and in some cases the dissociation of the ribosome.