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Answer to Question #3659 in Microbiology for Marvin

Question #3659
1. & By 2004, the West Nile virus had spread from New York to 47 of the lower 48 US states. & Even&
& & & by 2009 there was one of these 48 states that has never reported a human case of WNV
& & & infection.
& & & This state is:
& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ……………………………………..




2. & & In “serosurveys” to determine who in a population has been infected with any given agent, the
& & & & antibody tested for is


aIgM
bIgG
cIgA
dIgE




3. & & The aim of vaccination is to develop in the vaccinee which of the following


aCD4 T-cells
bCD8 T-cells
clong-lived memory B cells
dpolymorphonuclear leukocytes




4. & & The Gram stain reaction of a bacterial cell is determined by


awhether or not it is a pathogen
bits physiology and metabolism
cthe media on which it is grown
dhow long the counterstain is applied




5. & & Which of the following media is selective and differential


aMacConkey agar
bChocolate agar
cBlood agar
dPotato Dextrose agar




6. & & The term “coliform” is used by environmental microbiologists for the group of bacteria
& & & & & that clinical microbiologists call


aFastidious Gram-negative rods
bAnaerobic bacteria
cstreptococci found in feces
dEnteric Gram-negative rods




7. & & & Based on their basic life-cycles, which of the following differs from the other three


aTrichomonas vaginalis
bCryptosporidum species
cPlasmodium vivax
dToxoplasma gondii


8. & & Name two mechanisms by which bacteria may be resistant to the effect(s) of&
& & & & antibiotics & (NEED BOTH for the point)


& & & & …………………………………………………………………….


& & & & ……………………………………………………………………..




9. & & The term “10% household bleach” & for a disinfectant usually refers to what concentration of
& & & & sodium hypochorite


& & & & & …………………………………….




10. & & Escherichia coli is used as an “indicator” organism for recreational water quality because&


aIt is always pathogenic to man
bIt is found only in human feces
cIf it is present, there may also be enteric pathogens present
dAll of the above




11. & & An important feature of many RNA viruses is that they


aAre oncogenic
bAre prone to mutations
cGive rise to latent infections with the risk of reactivation infections
dDo not require receptor sites on cells they infect




12. & & If the label of a disinfectant says to use a dilution of 1 standard US measuring cup per&
& & & & & & gallon of water, using 2 cups/gallon will be twice as effective


& & & & & & [ & & ] & & & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & & ] & & FALSE




13. & & A respiratory pathogen has an R0 of 10. & What is the herd immunity threshold value for
& & & & & this organism


& & & & & ……………………………………….




14. & & If there were a release of smallpox virus in a large USA city and people were infected, “ring
& & & & & & vaccination” may not be successful in containing the infection geographically because
& & & & & & NEED TWO REASONS for the point


& & & & & (i)…………………………………………………………………………………………………..


& & & & & (ii) …………………………………………………………………………………………………






15. & & & What is the difference between the influenza vaccine for intramuscular administration and
& & & & & & the one for nasal spray administration & NEED BOTH answers correct for the point


& & & & & & The IM is a …………………………virus vaccine, the nasal spray is & ………………………….
& & & & & & virus vaccine.




16. & & Of the following human roundworms where the adults live in the intestines, which one is&
& & & & & & directly infectious with no delay


aEnterobius vermicularis & (the pinworm)
bAscaris lumbricoides
cNecator americanus
dTrichuris trichicura




17. & & Of the human flukes, which genus does not require a second intermediate host to complete
& & & & & & its life cycle


& & & & & & ………………………………………… species




18. & & & Because schizogony occurs in humans, humans are the intermediate hosts for the malarial&
& & & & & & parasites transmitted by mosquitoes


& & & & & & [ & ] & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & ] & FALSE












19. & & The Herpes viruses, HIV, HBV, WNV, and & Ebola virus have what in common


aAre DNA viruses
bAre enveloped viruses
cAre “environmentally labile” viruses
db & and & & c & &




20. & & Organism “X” isolated from a patient’s knee joint fluid has an MIC in the laboratory test of
& & & & & 4 micrograms/mL for drug “Y”. & Standard, safe dosing of drug “Y” only gives a level of 0.5
& & & & & micrgrams/mL in joint fluid. & Even though the test shows that the drug can inhibit growth of
& & & & & this organism, the & correct interpretation of the lab test for this patient’s infection is


aSusceptible
bEquivocal
cResistant
dGive the patient 8 times the standard dose of drug “Y”




21. & & Which 2 organisms are of increasing concern due to their presence on >50% of chicken&
& & & & & (whole and pieces) presented for retail sale, and the fact that these organisms are often
& & & & & & resistant to one or more antibiotics.


aCryptosporidium and campylobacter
bSalmonella and campylobacter
cSalmonella and cryptosporidium
dToxoplasma and campylobacter






22. & & Some of the antibiotics used in farming, either as growth supplements in animal foods and/or
& & & & & therapeutically in infections, are too toxic for use in human medicine. & A concern is that&
& & & & & resistance may develop to these antibiotics in human pathogens because


aSome time in the future these antibiotics may be used in humans
bRelated antibiotics, in the same class as the animal husbandry drugs are used
& & & & & & & & & & & & in human medicine
cCross resistance may occur
db & & & and & & & c




23. & & & Many of the fungi have so few virulence factors that they do not cause infections in&
& & & & & & immunocompetent persons. & These fungi are often referred to as what type of pathogen


& & & & & & …………………………………………….




24. & & & What stage of the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii is not found in non-feline hosts


alatent tissue cysts
boocysts
ctrophozoites
dshizonts




25. & & & What class of biological safety cabinet discharges 30% of HEPA filtered air from the cabinet
& & & & & & into the room and recirculates 70% of HEPA filtered air within the cabinet


aClass I
bClass II type A
cClass III
dClass II type B




26. & & & A diagnostic test that detects 100% of actual cases of a disease but has a significant number
& & & & & & of false-positive results (positive test in the absence of that disease) would be a useful


aConfirmatory test
bSupplemental test
cScreening test
dTest of cure




27. & & Which of the following is sometimes known as an “acute phase” marker for infection


aIgM
bIgG
cTotal immunoglobulins
dIgE




28. & & & In the USA, there is only one standard way of interpreting a Western Blot to diagnose
& & & & & & & infection with HIV


[ & ] & & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & ] & FALSE




29. & & & Although for different reasons and purposes, which of the following organizations has/have
& & & & & & a grouping of microorganisms as “Category A”


aCDC
bIATA
cUSDOT
dAll of the above




30. & & A person thought to have been possibly exposed to an infected and infectious person with a
& & & & & new strain of avian influenza, and now possibly incubating the infection himself can be
& & & & & separated from contact with others.
& & & & & This is known as&


aIsolation
bQuarantine
cOstracization
dAny of the above – the terms are synonymous






31. & & Surface sampling using RODAC plates works best under what conditions


aFlat surface with an expected high bacterial count
bConcave surface with an expected low bacterial count
cFlat surface with an expected low bacterial count
dConvex surface with an expected moderate bacterial count




32. & & & In the USA, what is the official standard, for general purposes, for indoor air quality (IAQ)
& & & & & & regarding the acceptable density of bacterial and fungal organisms in the air


aZero cfu/m3
b<500 cfu/m3
c>750 but <999 cfu/m3
dThere are no official standards for microorganisms and IAQ




33. & & & The federal “BioWatch” program is an early detection program for


aMonitoring drinking water quality in major cities
bMonitoring the air in selected cities for possible agents of BT
cPart of the USDA’s function in tracing food-borne outbreaks of salmonella
dSurveillance for viral infections spread by birds




34. & & Increases in the number of reported cases of a disease may be due to


aImproved detection methods
bActual increasing numbers of cases
cChange in the case definition
dAll of the above




35 and & 36. & & & 2 points for the complete list: & & List 6 micro-organisms (with the stage in their
& & & & & & & & & & & & life cycle if applicable) that commonly survive in chlorinated, potable municipal
& & & & & & & & & & & & water supplies


& & & & & & & & & & & & ………………… stage of ……………………………………


& & & & & & & & & & & & & ……………….. stage of ……………………………………..


& & & & & & & & & & & & & ……………….. stage of ………………………………………


& & & & & & & & & & & & & ……………….. stage of & …………………………………….. & & &


& & & & & & & & & & & & & …………………………………………………………………..


& & & & & & & & & & & & & …………………………………………………………………..












37. & & In the 1999 outbreak of dengue fever in Laredo (TX) and Nuevo Laredo (Mexico), the&
& & & & & differences in the number of cases of the disease in the populations of these 2 communities
& & & & & is explained by


aGeographical locations
bRainfall differences
cLifestyle differences
dGlobal warming




38. & & Eradication of an infectious disease is more likely to be possible if


aThere is no animal reservoir or arthropod vector
bMan is the only host
cVaccine is available and confers long-lasting immunity
dAll of the above




39. & & Pure polysaccharides may be antigenic but do not make good vaccines because


aChildren under 24 months old do not make antibodies to these
bIn humans older that 24 months, only a limited range of antibodies are produced
cB cells do not develop into longterm memory cells
dAll of the above




40. & & In air sampling for fungi, the choice of medium or media used can greatly affect the
& & & & & qualitative and quantitative results obtained


[ & & ] & & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & & ] & & FALSE


& & & & &
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