Answer to Question #3659 in Microbiology for Marvin

Question #3659
1. & By 2004, the West Nile virus had spread from New York to 47 of the lower 48 US states. & Even& & & & by 2009 there was one of these 48 states that has never reported a human case of WNV & & & infection. & & & This state is: & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & …………………………………….. 2. & & In “serosurveys” to determine who in a population has been infected with any given agent, the & & & & antibody tested for is aIgM bIgG cIgA dIgE 3. & & The aim of vaccination is to develop in the vaccinee which of the following aCD4 T-cells bCD8 T-cells clong-lived memory B cells dpolymorphonuclear leukocytes 4. & & The Gram stain reaction of a bacterial cell is determined by awhether or not it is a pathogen bits physiology and metabolism cthe media on which it is grown dhow long the counterstain is applied 5. & & Which of the following media is selective and differential aMacConkey agar bChocolate agar cBlood agar dPotato Dextrose agar 6. & & The term “coliform” is used by environmental microbiologists for the group of bacteria & & & & & that clinical microbiologists call aFastidious Gram-negative rods bAnaerobic bacteria cstreptococci found in feces dEnteric Gram-negative rods 7. & & & Based on their basic life-cycles, which of the following differs from the other three aTrichomonas vaginalis bCryptosporidum species cPlasmodium vivax dToxoplasma gondii 8. & & Name two mechanisms by which bacteria may be resistant to the effect(s) of& & & & & antibiotics & (NEED BOTH for the point) & & & & ……………………………………………………………………. & & & & …………………………………………………………………….. 9. & & The term “10% household bleach” & for a disinfectant usually refers to what concentration of & & & & sodium hypochorite & & & & & ……………………………………. 10. & & Escherichia coli is used as an “indicator” organism for recreational water quality because& aIt is always pathogenic to man bIt is found only in human feces cIf it is present, there may also be enteric pathogens present dAll of the above 11. & & An important feature of many RNA viruses is that they aAre oncogenic bAre prone to mutations cGive rise to latent infections with the risk of reactivation infections dDo not require receptor sites on cells they infect 12. & & If the label of a disinfectant says to use a dilution of 1 standard US measuring cup per& & & & & & & gallon of water, using 2 cups/gallon will be twice as effective & & & & & & [ & & ] & & & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & & ] & & FALSE 13. & & A respiratory pathogen has an R0 of 10. & What is the herd immunity threshold value for & & & & & this organism & & & & & ………………………………………. 14. & & If there were a release of smallpox virus in a large USA city and people were infected, “ring & & & & & & vaccination” may not be successful in containing the infection geographically because & & & & & & NEED TWO REASONS for the point & & & & & (i)………………………………………………………………………………………………….. & & & & & (ii) ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15. & & & What is the difference between the influenza vaccine for intramuscular administration and & & & & & & the one for nasal spray administration & NEED BOTH answers correct for the point & & & & & & The IM is a …………………………virus vaccine, the nasal spray is & …………………………. & & & & & & virus vaccine. 16. & & Of the following human roundworms where the adults live in the intestines, which one is& & & & & & & directly infectious with no delay aEnterobius vermicularis & (the pinworm) bAscaris lumbricoides cNecator americanus dTrichuris trichicura 17. & & Of the human flukes, which genus does not require a second intermediate host to complete & & & & & & its life cycle & & & & & & ………………………………………… species 18. & & & Because schizogony occurs in humans, humans are the intermediate hosts for the malarial& & & & & & & parasites transmitted by mosquitoes & & & & & & [ & ] & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & ] & FALSE 19. & & The Herpes viruses, HIV, HBV, WNV, and & Ebola virus have what in common aAre DNA viruses bAre enveloped viruses cAre “environmentally labile” viruses db & and & & c & & 20. & & Organism “X” isolated from a patient’s knee joint fluid has an MIC in the laboratory test of & & & & & 4 micrograms/mL for drug “Y”. & Standard, safe dosing of drug “Y” only gives a level of 0.5 & & & & & micrgrams/mL in joint fluid. & Even though the test shows that the drug can inhibit growth of & & & & & this organism, the & correct interpretation of the lab test for this patient’s infection is aSusceptible bEquivocal cResistant dGive the patient 8 times the standard dose of drug “Y” 21. & & Which 2 organisms are of increasing concern due to their presence on >50% of chicken& & & & & & (whole and pieces) presented for retail sale, and the fact that these organisms are often & & & & & & resistant to one or more antibiotics. aCryptosporidium and campylobacter bSalmonella and campylobacter cSalmonella and cryptosporidium dToxoplasma and campylobacter 22. & & Some of the antibiotics used in farming, either as growth supplements in animal foods and/or & & & & & therapeutically in infections, are too toxic for use in human medicine. & A concern is that& & & & & & resistance may develop to these antibiotics in human pathogens because aSome time in the future these antibiotics may be used in humans bRelated antibiotics, in the same class as the animal husbandry drugs are used & & & & & & & & & & & & in human medicine cCross resistance may occur db & & & and & & & c 23. & & & Many of the fungi have so few virulence factors that they do not cause infections in& & & & & & & immunocompetent persons. & These fungi are often referred to as what type of pathogen & & & & & & ……………………………………………. 24. & & & What stage of the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii is not found in non-feline hosts alatent tissue cysts boocysts ctrophozoites dshizonts 25. & & & What class of biological safety cabinet discharges 30% of HEPA filtered air from the cabinet & & & & & & into the room and recirculates 70% of HEPA filtered air within the cabinet aClass I bClass II type A cClass III dClass II type B 26. & & & A diagnostic test that detects 100% of actual cases of a disease but has a significant number & & & & & & of false-positive results (positive test in the absence of that disease) would be a useful aConfirmatory test bSupplemental test cScreening test dTest of cure 27. & & Which of the following is sometimes known as an “acute phase” marker for infection aIgM bIgG cTotal immunoglobulins dIgE 28. & & & In the USA, there is only one standard way of interpreting a Western Blot to diagnose & & & & & & & infection with HIV [ & ] & & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & ] & FALSE 29. & & & Although for different reasons and purposes, which of the following organizations has/have & & & & & & a grouping of microorganisms as “Category A” aCDC bIATA cUSDOT dAll of the above 30. & & A person thought to have been possibly exposed to an infected and infectious person with a & & & & & new strain of avian influenza, and now possibly incubating the infection himself can be & & & & & separated from contact with others. & & & & & This is known as& aIsolation bQuarantine cOstracization dAny of the above – the terms are synonymous 31. & & Surface sampling using RODAC plates works best under what conditions aFlat surface with an expected high bacterial count bConcave surface with an expected low bacterial count cFlat surface with an expected low bacterial count dConvex surface with an expected moderate bacterial count 32. & & & In the USA, what is the official standard, for general purposes, for indoor air quality (IAQ) & & & & & & regarding the acceptable density of bacterial and fungal organisms in the air aZero cfu/m3 b<500 cfu/m3 c>750 but <999 cfu/m3 dThere are no official standards for microorganisms and IAQ 33. & & & The federal “BioWatch” program is an early detection program for aMonitoring drinking water quality in major cities bMonitoring the air in selected cities for possible agents of BT cPart of the USDA’s function in tracing food-borne outbreaks of salmonella dSurveillance for viral infections spread by birds 34. & & Increases in the number of reported cases of a disease may be due to aImproved detection methods bActual increasing numbers of cases cChange in the case definition dAll of the above 35 and & 36. & & & 2 points for the complete list: & & List 6 micro-organisms (with the stage in their & & & & & & & & & & & & life cycle if applicable) that commonly survive in chlorinated, potable municipal & & & & & & & & & & & & water supplies & & & & & & & & & & & & ………………… stage of …………………………………… & & & & & & & & & & & & & ……………….. stage of …………………………………….. & & & & & & & & & & & & & ……………….. stage of ……………………………………… & & & & & & & & & & & & & ……………….. stage of & …………………………………….. & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ………………………………………………………………….. & & & & & & & & & & & & & ………………………………………………………………….. 37. & & In the 1999 outbreak of dengue fever in Laredo (TX) and Nuevo Laredo (Mexico), the& & & & & & differences in the number of cases of the disease in the populations of these 2 communities & & & & & is explained by aGeographical locations bRainfall differences cLifestyle differences dGlobal warming 38. & & Eradication of an infectious disease is more likely to be possible if aThere is no animal reservoir or arthropod vector bMan is the only host cVaccine is available and confers long-lasting immunity dAll of the above 39. & & Pure polysaccharides may be antigenic but do not make good vaccines because aChildren under 24 months old do not make antibodies to these bIn humans older that 24 months, only a limited range of antibodies are produced cB cells do not develop into longterm memory cells dAll of the above 40. & & In air sampling for fungi, the choice of medium or media used can greatly affect the & & & & & qualitative and quantitative results obtained [ & & ] & & TRUE & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & [ & & ] & & FALSE & & & & &
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2011-07-19T05:01:51-0400
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