Answer to Question #229781 in Microbiology for Eugine

Question #229781

Mrs. Mwape aged 47 years is admitted to the ICU in your hospital with a provisional

diagnosis of Corona virus.

a. Explain the history of the current Corona Virus outbreak in the world. In your

explanation include the types or classifications of this virus.

b. Epidemiological profile of this infections world wide

c. International and local preventive measures

d. Impact of this disease on the health care system in Zambia

e. Implications of this disease on the Nursing profession in Zambia

f. Discuss how you will assess Mrs. Mwape on admission (Analysis of one chief

symptom presented with), detailed nursing care using any5 specific nursing diagnosis.

g. State at least five (5) possible complications Mrs. Mwape might develop.

Expert's answer

a)Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the highly contagious viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has had a catastrophic effect on the world’s demographics resulting in more than 3.8 million deaths worldwide, emerging as the most consequential global health crisis since the era of the influenza pandemic of 1918.

b)According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the emergence of viral diseases represents a serious public health risk. In the past two decades, several epidemics caused by viruses such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from 2002 to 2003, and H1N1 influenza in 2009, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 have been described which have had a significant impact on global health. Since being declared a global pandemic by the WHO, SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19 has spread to 223 countries with more than 178 million confirmed cases, and more than 3.8 million deaths reported globally. The U.S. experienced the highest number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 related deaths followed by Brazil and India.

c)COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020 after heart disease and cancer, with approximately 375,000 death reported.[29] As of 22 June 2021, the Alpha(B.1.1.7) variant has spread to 170 countries, the Beta (B.1.351) variant has been reported in 119 countries,the Gamma (P.1) variant has been detected in 71 countries and the Delta variant(B.1.617.2) has spread to 85 countries around the world based on the weekly epidemiological update by the WHO. The WHO’s current estimate of the global case fatality rate for COVID-19 is 2.2%. However, the case fatality rate is affected by factors that include age, underlying preexisting conditions, and severity of illness and significantly varies between countries.

d)An unpredicted nursing shortage happening nowShifting nursing workforce needsRapid changes to nursing education programs
f)A detailed clinical history regarding the onset and duration of symptoms, travel history, exposure to people with COVID-19 infection, underlying preexisting medical conditions, and drug history should be elicited by treating providers. Patients with typical clinical signs suspicious of COVID-19 such as fever, cough, sore throat, loss of taste or smell, malaise, and myalgias should be promptly tested for SARS-CoV-2. Besides symptomatic patients, patients with atypical symptoms of COVID-19 or anyone with known high-risk exposure to SARS-CoV-2 should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection even in the absence of symptoms.


  • Mrs. Mwape would experience severe COVID-19 illness is progressive or sudden clinical deterioration leading to acute respiratory failure and ARDS and/or multiorgan failure leading to death.
  • Patients with COVID-19 illness are also at increased risk of developing prothrombotic complications such as PE, DVT, MI, ischemic strokes, and arterial thrombosis.
  • Cardiovascular system involvement results in malignant arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, and cardiogenic shock.
  • GI complications such as bowel ischemia, transaminitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis, Ogilvie syndrome, mesenteric ischemia, and severe ileus are often noted in critically ill patients with COVID-19 [149]
  • Acute renal failure is the most common extrapulmonary manifestation of COVID-19 and is associated with an increased risk of mortality.
  • A meta-analysis study of 14 studies evaluating the prevalence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, it is noted to be associated with severe illness and was a poor prognostic indicator. 

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