a. You are having a conversation with Cindy, the magic turtle. Cindy is very curious about the formation of species. She tells you excitedly how one species of turtle inhabited the same geographical area, but ended up forming two different species over time. She admits she is a bit surprised by this; she thought that populations needed to be geographically separated from each other in order to form two different species. Explain to Cindy how speciation can occur without geographical separation. Name the type of pathway to speciation that occurred in this case. (3 marks)
Speciation can occur without geographical separation through sympatric speciation. Sympatric speciation is best defined as when organisms encounter chromosomal errors during meiosis such as polyploidy. Polyploidy is when species have an extra chromosome than the previous species. This can also lead to genetic modification where species are in a competition with one another for survival.
Speciation that arises from organisms with the same geographical position can be referred to as sympatric speciation. Sympatric speciation can occur when chromosol error occurs during meiosis or a formation of hybrid offspring with excess chromosomes different from the parent species. Among sympatric speciation, types can be referred to as polyploidy, a condition whereby cells or organisms develop extra chromosomes. There are two polyploidy categories that have been studied to result in reproductive isolation for an individual that exhibits a polyploidy state. Autopolyploidy occurs when an individual possesses two or more complete sets of chromosomes from its chromosomes. Autoploid species shall therefore only mate with other similar autoploid species to produce viable offspring.