Studies investigating the effects of GH on glucose metabolism have demonstrated that GH increases glucose production through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis from the liver and kidney. Patients with acromegaly and human individuals exposed to high doses of GH showed markedly increased gluconeogenesis activity in the liver and kidney. Also, the cross-talk between insulin and GH downstream of receptor activation in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue provides another alternative potent mechanism mediating GH-induced insulin resistance.
Because increased insulin resistance and impaired insulin sensitivity are linked to the risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus, concerns have been raised regarding the possible development of diabetes mellitus during or after GH treatment or taking human growth hormone supplements in the long-term.
The main symptoms of diabetes mellitus:
Unintended weight loss