Answer to Question #86805 in Genetics for ajj
Artificial cloning is a process of producing identical clones of organisms, cells or DNA fragments in a laboratory. The types of artificial cloning comprise gene cloning (copies of genes or other DNA fragments), reproductive cloning (cloning of whole animals) and therapeutic cloning (cloning of stem cells for replacing injured tissues). As a result, artificial cloning is used for various purposes.
Artificial cloning of animals has potential benefits for medicine and agriculture. For example, genetically modified cloned animals can be used for the production of human-specific proteins including hormones, antibodies, blood clotting components, etc. Next, the cloned animals can be used for the testing of new drugs and strategies of treatment. Cloning can be used to create populations of rare and extinct animals. Next, reproductive cloning is used to produce copies of pets to get similar animal replacing dead dog or cat.
Therapeutic cloning is based on the use of stem cells in medicine. These stems cell can be derived from a patient, treated or changed in the appropriate way and transplanted to the same patient. As embryonic stem cells can form all cell types of the organisms, it is possible to convert the patient’s embryonic stem cells into a specific cell population, tissue or even organ. The development of biotechnology for obtaining large quantities of stem cells with therapeutic cloning will enable physicians to correct and treat many still incurable diseases, such as diabetes (insulin-dependent), Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), heart muscle diseases (myocardial infarction), diseases of the kidneys, liver, diseases of the bones, blood and others.