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Given a diploid number of 2N=8 and atleast 2 crossing over events, trace the fate of these chromosomes until the formation of haploid daughter cells in Meiosis II.
1. What is the problem encountered in a classical breeding which gave the way to the birth of genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology?
2. In what stage of meiosis I does genetic engineering/RDT modify and recombine DNAs to produce desired products with desirable traits?

In fruit flies, short wing is dominant to long wing. What are the genotypes and phenotypes of offsprings between two heterozygous short winged flies?

Based on the coverage of the regulation of glycogen metabolism, describe or predict what effect the following real or hypothetical mutations might have on an infant born with the described genetic defects. Describe the effects both at the level of glycogen structure and/or metabolism and potential symptoms:

A) Mutation in muscle glycogen phosphorylase that weakens binding of AMP.

B) Mutation in liver glycogen phosphorylase that inhibits binding of glucose.

C) Mutations that inhibit the activity of debranching enzyme.

3. Mr. and Mrs. Banda both have tightly curled hair. (The hair form gene shows incomplete dominance. There

are two alleles, curly and straight. The heterozygote has wavy hair.) The Bandas have a child with wavy hair. Mr.

Banda accuses Mrs. Banda of being unfaithful to him. Is he necessarily justified? Why or why not? Use a genetic

diagram to support your argument.

4. A man with dark (dominant), curly (see problem I.5.) hair marries a woman with light, straight hair. Their

daughter, who happens to have dark hair, marries a man with light, wavy hair. Answer the following questions

about this dark-haired daughter and her family.

a. Draw a Punnett’s square for this marriage, and predict the phenotypic ratio among the offspring of the

daughter and her husband.

b. What is the chance that they will have a child with hair just like his or her father’s?


1. Why there checkpoints are needed to double check the progress of cell cycle?

2. What are the checkpoits looking for?

3. Can mistakes that are identified be corrected?

4. What happens if a mutated cell makes it past the checkpoints suvvessfully?

5. What would happen if any phase of mitosis failed to occur?
1. Suppose that your arm, hand and foot was made up of only one cell. What would happen if the cell stopped working or died?

2. What happens if just one cell dies in your hand, arm or foot? Do all the cells in your hand or foot die? Does your foot fall off?

3. What does body do to replace cells that die, whether they are in our hand or foot or elsewhere in our bodies?
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA share the following features, EXCEPT:

Group of answer choices

a) Polypeptide/protein-coding sequence

b) A 3 prime untranslated region

c) A 5 prime untranslated region (UTR)

d) Two-fold symmetry that can form a hairpin
All of the following with respect to transcription in prokaryotes (bacteria) are true, EXCEPT:

a) Most genes have a consensus sequence located at the -35 position

b) Translation of an mRNA can start while transcription is still in progress

c) RNA Polymerase binds genes at the first intron sequence

d) Most genes have a consensus sequence located at the -10 position
For a non-human organism with somatic cells that have 20 chromosomes, indicate the number of
a. chromatids in the G2 phase.
b. chromosomes during prophase of mitosis.
c. synapsed homologous pairs in metaphase I.
d. chromatids in anaphase of mitosis.
e. telomeres in the G0 phase.
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