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What is crossing over in meiosis and what is the purpose of it?
What is removed from pyruvate during its conversion into an acetyl group during the first step of glycolysis
What are the three main types of parameters used to model DNA evolution? What are back mutations and how do they affect the relationship between time since divergence and number of base pair differences that accumulate over time, when doing phylogenetic analyses? What are the defining characteristics of nuclear DNA markers as molecular genetic tools? Which characteristic can result in erroneous inferences from the use of nuclear genes? What are the defining characteristics of mtDNA markers as molecular genetic tools? Which of these characteristics can be both valuable and/or limiting, depending on the application? Identify two biological questions that can be addressed using phylogenetic approaches and give an example of each?
You are a researcher in the Plant Biodiversity Department. Three types of mango leave isolated from Gunung Ledang, Lembah Pantai and Kota Bharu were sent to your department/laboratory. Suggest the most appropriate method to study the expression levels of steroid-related genes (steroid gene A, steroid gene B, and steroid gene C) in all of the samples. Justify why the suggested method is the best approach.
A breeder wishes to produce more prize- winning dogs from his 2 - year - old male schnauzer. What are his options? Which method would produce the most exact copy? Also, what is the difference between artificial insemination and reproductive cloning? Does artificial insemination produce identical copies?
When resolving taxonomic uncertainty what are the three most widely used frameworks in determining Evolutionary Significant Units (ESU)?
Context: multigene families Explain the evolutionary significance of the P450 cytochrome family and the amylase family and indicate how they provide flexibility to organisms.
Context: multigene families Describe the beta globin gene family and indicate how it provides developmental flexibility.
A group of genetics students mix two auxotrophic strains of bacteria: one is leu+ trp+ his− met− and the other is leu− trp− his+ met+. After mixing the two strains, they plate the bacteria on minimal medium and observe a few prototrophic colonies (leu+ trp+ his+ met+). They assume that some gene transfer has taken place between the two strains. How can they determine whether the transfer of genes is due to conjugation, transduction, or transformation?
Plz explain the process of terminalization
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