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. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are dominant alleles for gray-body colour and normal wings. The recessive alleles of these two genes result in black body colour and vestigial wings respectively. Flies homozygous for gray body and normal wings were crossed with flies that had black bodies and vestigial wings. Write down this cross. The F1 progeny were then test-crossed, with the following results:
Gray body, normal wings 236
Black body, vestigial wings 253
Gray body, vestigial wings 50
Black body, normal wings 61

a. Write down the genotype for each phenotype. Would you say that these two genes are linked?
b. If so, how many units apart are they on the chromosome?

3. The cross-over frequency between linked genes A and B is 40%; between B and C, 20%; between C and D, 10%; between C and A, 20%, between D and B, 10%. What is the sequence of the genes on the chromosome?
In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, vestigial wings and hairy body are produced by two recessive alleles located on different chromosomes. The normal alleles, long wings and hairless body, are dominant. Suppose a vestigial-winged hairy male is crossed with a homozygous normal female. What types of progeny would be expected? If the F1 from this cross are permitted to mate randomly among themselves, what progeny would be expected in F2? Show complete genotypes, phenotypes, and ratios for each generation. Make sure to label your alleles, generate a proper Punnett square, include all genotypes and frequencies
Q.1 explain the female reproductiove system ?

Q.2 clarify the progressions happen during sperm develop or changes during sperm maturation?

Q.3 Is sexual reproduction hindered by the presence of a large number of chromosomes in an
organism?
Q.4 clarify the harmones and their separate capacities during the female menstrual cycle?
Both the husband and wife have normal vision. The wife gives birth to a colour-blind daughter. Is it more likely that the father is colour blind or has normal vision? What does this lead you to deduce about the girl’s parents genome?
If you cross a homozygous dominant almond shape eyes with homozygous recessive round shape eyes what is the probability that the offspring will have phenotype of round shape eyes
ABO blood typing is a codominant trait in which A and B are both dominant. What is the probability that in two parents will have an offspring with blood type O if one parent has a genotype AO and one parent has a Genotype BO?
A person with type A blood has a child with a person who has type AB blood. Is it possible that the child can have type B blood? Explain using a Punnett square.

Polymerase chain reaction and transcription both copy DNA. Describe two differences between the two processes.


using the codon table found in the textbook, translate these two almost identical RNA strands into peptide sequences, using the first base of each as the first triplet in a codon. You will notice that the second strand has a point deletion (the u in bold) with respect to the first strand – comment on how this has affected the resulting peptide chain.
using the codon table found in Figure 15.4 in Chapter 15 of the textbook, translate these two almost identical RNA strands into peptide sequences, using the first base of each as the first triplet in a codon. You will notice that the second strand has a point deletion (the u in bold) with respect to the first strand – comment on how this has affected the resulting peptide chain.
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