1) Aerobic proton pumps are oxidases, while anaerobic bacteria have reductases as protons pumps.
2) Sclerenchyama and collenchymas are both mechanical plant tissues. The collenchyma consists of living cells, the shells of which are unevenly thickened, and this gives the cells bending strength, prevents fractures and ruptures. Sclerenchyma consists of dead cells with uniformly thickened and most often lignified membranes.
3) The process of spontaneous equalization of the concentrations of substances in a thermodynamic system is called diffusion. Diffusion is a two-way process. So, both solvent molecules and molecules (ions) of dissolved substances participate in solutions in the process of diffusion. The process of predominantly one-sided penetration of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis. In the process of osmosis, solvent molecules penetrate through a semipermeable membrane either from a solvent into a solution, or from a dilute solution to a more concentrated one.