Why is the concentration of urea higher in the urine than in the filtrate?
The processes that result in the glucose concentrations?
When a nerve impulse passes from one neuron to another, it causes the release of neurotransmitter from versicles a fused to the membrane of the synaptic knob. Neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft and then binds to receptor on the ion channel. How does this lead to setting up an action potential in the next neuron?
The immune systems Primary role is to defend against pathogens. For this to be affective the immune system must be able to recognise cells that belong to the body and cells that do not.
What is the mechanism that the immune system uses to distinguish between body cells and potential pathogens?
why is this mechanism means that patients who receive and organ donation require immune suppression drugs?
1. Because water is reabsorbed from the filtrate (by osmosis, due to the hypertonicity of the medulla), urea becomes more concentrated in urine
2). Regulation of blood glucose
5) Using a combination of cellular and molecular attacks, the innate immune system identifies the nature of a pathogen and responds with inflammation, phagocytosis (where a cell engulfs a foreign particle), cytokine release, destruction by NK cells, and/or a complement system.
6) After an organ transplant, you will need to take immunosuppressant (anti-rejection) drugs. These drugs help prevent your immune system from attacking ("rejecting") the donor organ. Typically, they must be taken for the lifetime of your transplanted organ