Answer to Question #214512 in Cell Biology for Moe

Question #214512

2.3) Describe initiation, elongation and termination of translation.

Expert's answer

Termination is the method by which translation comes to a final moment. Termination occurs when an mRNA stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA) penetrates the A site. Prevent codons are acknowledged by discharge influences, which are proteins that fit tidily into the P site (even if they are not tRNAs).

Elongation is the process by which the RNA dimension grows longer due to the additament of current nucleotides. RNA polymerase "walks" across one strand of DNA, referred as the template strand, in the 3' to 5' path all through elongation.

In eukaryotes, translation is terminated in reaction to a deter codon in the ribosomal A-site, which necessitates two discharge aspects (RFs), eRF1 and eRF3, which attach to the A-site as an eRF1/eRF3/GTP dynamic, with eRF1 essential for codon acceptance. Following GTP hydrolysis by eRF3, eRF1 initiates polypeptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, resulting in the release of the finished protein brand. This tends to leave an 80S ribosome already linked to the mRNA, with deacylated tRNA in its P-site and at least eRF1 in its A-site, which must be discarded and discharged from the mRNA to permit for additional cycles of translation.

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