Answer to Question #202685 in Cell Biology for Taimoor

Question #202685

Detail structure of plant and animal cell. Write each organelle, its structure and function.

Expert's answer

Animal and plant cells share the common components of a nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria and a cell membrane. Plant cells have three extra components, a vacuole, chloroplast and a cell wall.

Organelles in an animal cell are;


 The cytoplasm is the liquid part of the cell. It consists mainly of water and has many different substances dissolved in it. Many of the cell's chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm.

Cell membrane

The cell membrane contains the contents of the cell and provides a barrier to control what enters and leaves the cell. The cell membrane is often described as "selectively permeable" as it allows some but not all substances across and can choose which substances can pass across the cell.


 The nucleus controls everything which takes place in the cell. It does this as it is the site of the cell's DNA. DNA contains the genetic code which is translated into proteins. All of the chemical reactions which take place in cells are controlled by these proteins.


Mitochondria are the power houses of animal, plant and fungal cells. They are found in the cytoplasm and the majority of the respiration chemical reactions take place in the mitochondria, which releases chemical energy from food molecules.


Ribosomes are tiny structures which are also found in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes are the sites of protein production in cells.

Plant cells contain the following organelles;

Cell wall

Plant cell membranes are surrounded by a wall which is made of cellulose fibres. Plant cell walls provide structure to the cell, and to the plant. The cell wall allows the cell to fill with water without bursting. Plant cell walls are fully permeable.


The chloroplast is the site of Photosynthesis in the cell. This is where energy from light is used to produce sugar from carbon dioxide and water.


Plant cells have a large central vacuole which fills with fluid, or sap, which helps provide structure to the cell and the plant.

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