Sunstances move through biological membranes against concentration gradientd via what
Substances move through biological membranes against concentration gradients via active transport. This process is “active” because it requires the use of energy (usually in the form of ATP).
The main type of active transport and one of the most important pumps in animal cells is the sodium-potassium pump, which moves Na+ out of cells, and K+ into them.In secondary active transport, the movement of the sodium ions down their gradient is coupled to the uphill transport of other substances by a shared carrier protein (a cotransporter).
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