Describe the steps involved in protein synthesis in prokaryotes.
Initiation: assembly of the components of the translation system, which are: the two ribosomal subunits (50S and 30S subunits); the mature mRNA to be translated; the tRNA charged with N-formylmethionine (the first amino acid in the nascent peptide); guanosine triphosphate (GTP) as a source of energy, and the three prokaryotic initiation factors IF1, IF2, and IF3, which help the assembly of the initiation complex.
Elongation: involves addition of amino acids to the carboxyl end of the growing chain. The growing protein exits the ribosome through the polypeptide exit tunnel in the large subunit. Elongation starts when the fMet-tRNA enters the complex. The ribosome continues to translate the remaining codons on the mRNA as more aminoacyl-tRNA bind until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on mRNA(UAA, UGA, or UAG).
Termination: occurs when one of the three termination codons moves into.These codons are not recognized by any tRNAs. Instead, they are recognized by proteins called release factors, namely RF1 (recognizing the UAA and UAG stop codons) or RF2 (recognizing the UAA and UGA stop codons). These factors trigger the hydrolysis of the ester bond in peptidyl-tRNA and the release of the newly synthesized protein from the ribosome. A third release factor RF-3 catalyzes the release of RF-1 and RF-2 at the end of the termination process.