(a) Explain the energy landscape model for protein folding with appropriate illustrations.
(b) What is the principle of minimal frustration?
a) The energy landscape model for protein folding model is a statistical description of a protein's potential surface. It assumes that folding occurs through organizing an ensemble of structures rather than through only a few uniquely defined structural intermediates. it suggests that the most realistic model of protein is a minimally frustrated heteropolymen with a rugged funnel-like landscape biased toward the native structure.
b) The principle of minimal frustration states that all naturally evolved proteins have optimized folding energy landscapes, with topological or energetic barriers that are often a consequence of forming the biologically functional folded state.