Diabetes is a group of endocrine diseases associated with insulin deficiency, resulting in hyperglycemia - a persistent increase of glucose in bloodstream.
Metabolic disorders caused by diabetes:
CARBOHYDRATE EXCHANGE: difficult transportation of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue; a decrease in glycogen synthesis in the liver; increased gluconeogenesis.
WATER-SALT EXCHANGE: constant loss of potassium and sodium which leads to dehydration.
PROTEIN METABOLISM: inhibition of protein synthesis and its increased breakdown. Due to inhibition of protein synthesis in childhood, growth retardation is observed. The production of defensive proteins is reduced, which leads to decreased immunity.
LIPID METABOLISM: insulin deficiency causes reduced fat synthesis and increased lipolysis. Ketone bodies are accumulated in the liver.