What is the significance of vitamins and minerals in the living systems ? Write one biochemical reaction in which the enzyme of cynocobalamin is associated and explain the mechanism of the reaction.
Vital for organism are macroelements (> 100 mg daily dose) and microelements (<100 mg daily dose). Most macroelements function as structural components or electrolytes. Iodine and calcium perform signal function. Most microelements serve as cofactors of proteins, mostly enzymes. The two bioactive forms of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) are methylcobalamin in the cytosol and adenosylcobalamin in mitochondria. B12 methylcobalamin and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are needed by Methionine synthase in the Methionine cycle to transfer a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine, thereby generating tetrahydrofolate and methionine, which is used to make S-adenosyl methyonine.