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Review the protein-protein interactions and signalling networks that account for the action of PI3Kinase in relaying pro-survival signals and in preparing cells to grow.
A recently discovered plant extracted is thought to have therapeutic utility for treating stroke patients as it may inhibit neuronal cell death in the region of tissue with reduced blood flow by inhibiting apoptosis. A rat model of stroke exists in which a temporary reduction in blood flow (ischaemia) to one hemisphere of brain can be induced. Describe a series of experiments you would undertake to investigate if the drug is able to reduce post-ischaemic cell death and to determine if active Akt is induced following an ischaemic event.
Activated Ras activates the protein kinase activity of RAF kinase. RAF kinase phosphorylates and activates MEK (MEK1 and MEK2). MEK phosphorylates and activates a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). RAF, and ERK (also known as MAPK) are both serine/threonine-selective protein kinases.