Answer to Question #221869 in Biochemistry for José

Question #221869

Outline the designs of a case-control study and a cohort study to examine the association between a high-fat diet and bowel cancer

Expert's answer

The cohort study design is the best available scientific method for measuring the effects of a suspected risk factor,they observe a group of people, known as the cohort, over a period of time. This may take several years. They collect data that may be relevant to the disease.they aim to detect any changes in health linked to the possible risk factors they have identified.scientists may ask participants to record specific lifestyle details over the course of a study. Then, they can analyze any possible correlations between lifestyle factors and disease.

This study was designed to assess various dietary factors and the nutritional status of hospitalized patients with bowel cancer.Cohort studies are observational. The researchers observe what happens without intervening.In experimental studies, such as RCTs, the scientists intervene, for example, by giving participants a new drug and assessing the outcomes.When looking for the causes of disease, it would be unethical to deliberately expose participants to a suspected risk factor, as would be the case in an RCT. Instead a prospective cohort study is observational rather than interventional.

Cohort studies are considered to be better than case-control studies because they are usually prospective. Case studies are limited because they are usually retrospective and involve a smaller number of people.

The consumption of meat high in fat, fried eggs and whole fat dairy products, and diet low in fibers 2-3 times or above per week increased the risk of bowel cancer, while the consumption of whole wheat products, vegetables and fruits, and diet low in animal fats at the same rate per week may play a protective role against colorectal cancer in both men and women when compared to controls.

A recent study has concluded that anaerobic bacterial blood infections are associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.Anaerobic bacteria, unlike aerobic bacteria, do not require oxygen in order to function. They are a normal part of the human body, existing in various locations, including the gut.They usually do not cause infections, but when they do, it is most often in the area that the bacteria inhabit.

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