Answer to Question #20388 in Biochemistry for anna

Question #20388
Which provides the energy used to make ATP from ADP?
Expert's answer
ATP stands for Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, and is the energy used by an organism in its daily operations. It consists of an adenosine molecule and three inorganic phosphates. After a simple reaction breaking down ATP to ADP, the energy released from the breaking of a molecular bond is the energy we use to keep ourselves alive.

This is done by a simple process, in which one of the phosphate molecules is broken off, therefore reducing the ATP from 3 phosphates to 2, forming ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate after removing one of the phosphates {Pi}). This is commonly written as ADP + Pi.

When the bond connecting the phosphate is broken, energy is released.

While ATP is constantly being used up by the body in its biological processes, the energy supply can be bolstered by new sources of glucose being made available via eating food which is then broken down by the digestive system to smaller particles that can be utilised by the body.

On top of this, ADP is built back up into ATP so that it can be used again in its more energetic state. Although this conversion requires energy, the process produces a net gain in energy, meaning that more energy is available by re-using ADP+Pi back into ATP.

In plants, ADP is converted into ATP through the addition of a phosphate group during a process called the cytochrome system. Simply put, the flow of hydrogen ions, known as a proton motive force, powers a wheel of sorts that, through the use of an enzyme called atp synthase, takes an ADP and grabs an Phosphae group, effectively bonding them creating the high energy molecule.

In animals, the tree part process of respiration is where ATP is created. Molecules reduced in glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle are used (their energy is) to convert ADP into ATP, while other ATP is made through other means during the first tw processes. 36 ATP is created per one glucose molecule run through the respiration process. (more are technically made, but 4 are used in transportation and replenishment.)

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