a. ) Citric Acid Cycle
b.) Fatty Acid oxidation
e.) Pentose phosphate pathway
No, the mitochondrial matrix never runs out of protons because they (protons) are pulled into the inter-membrane space by the energy of the electrons going through the electron transport chain.The protons return to the mitochondrial matrix through the protein ATP synthase. The energy is used in order to rotate ATP synthase which facilitates the passage of a proton, producing ATP.
a) Citric Acid Cycle produces 2 ATP
b) Fatty Acid produces 129 ATP
c) Glycogenolysis produces 33 ATP
d) Glycolysis produces 2 ATP
e) Pentose phosphate Pathway produces 1 ATP
Conclusion: Fatty Acid Oxidation produce the most ATP; Acetyl-CoA generated by the beta-oxidation pathway enters the mitochondrial TCA cycle, where it is further oxidized to generate NADH and FADH2. The NADH and FADH2 produced by both beta oxidation and the TCA cycle are used by the mitochondrial electron transport chain to produce ATP. Complete oxidation of one palmitate molecule (fatty acid containing 16 carbons) generates 129 ATP molecules.