Carbonic anhydrase is strongly inhibited by the drug acetazolamide, which is used as a diuretic. Carbonic anhydrase plays a significant role in the secretary processes because it participates in regulating the pH and bicarbonate of body fluids. The experimental curve of initial reaction velocity versus [S] for the carbonic anhydrase is shown below. When the experiment is repeated in the presence of acetazolamide, the lower curve is obtained. Determine the nature of inhibition. Explain with reason.
Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. That means this drug works to cause an accumulation of carbonic acid by preventing its breakdown. The result is lower blood pH (i.e., more acidic), given the increased carbonic acid, which has a reversible reaction into bicarbonate and a hydrogen ion. In the kidneys, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) result in the inhibition of bicarbonate uptake by the proximal tubule, resulting in alkalization of urine.