Answer to Question #148937 in Biochemistry for kisa

Question #148937
1. What is the hydrophobic effect? Explain.

2. Explain how the following terms are related: macromolecule, polymer & monomer.

3. Why are glucose, fructose and galactose isomers?

4. In what ways are lipids similar to and different from carbohydrates?

5. Compare and contrast a strand of DNA and a strand of RNA.

6. Explain why the Golgi apparatus is often described as the “post office” of the cell.
Expert's answer

1. The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution, including water molecules. The word hydrophobic literally means "hydrophobia", and it describes the segregation of water and non-polar substances, which maximizes the hydrogen bonds between water molecules and minimizes the contact area between water and non-polar molecules.

2.Polymer- substance consisting of macromolecules. 

A macromolecule is a molecule consisting of a large number of identical or different structural units.

A monomer is a structural unit of a macromolecule.

3.Glucose, sucrose, and galactose are isomers because they have the same atomic composition and molecular weight, but they differ in the structure and location of atoms in space and, consequently, in their properties.

4.Lipids and carbohydrates are macromolecules that consist of monomers. The bonds between monomers are energetically saturated, which allows the decomposition of carbohydrates and lipids to obtain energy. Differences of these polymers in the chemical difference of monomers. Carbohydrates and lipids perform various functions in the cell and the body

5.RNA and DNA are macromolecules whose monomers are nucleotides. The difference in these molecules is that the composition of DNA nucleotides includes deoxyribose sugar, and RNA contains ribose sugar.

DNA molecules consist of two chains of polynucleotides, RNA — of one. The composition of RNA as well as DNA includes four bases, but instead of thymine there is a similar structure uracil.

6.The substances enter the Golgi apparatus from the ER and undergo final modifications, then they are Packed in membrane bubbles. It is assumed that targeted delivery of substances is achieved by packaging them in vesicles with a different set of receptors,

which are transported through the intracellular network of microtubules to the delivery address.

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