An experiment is an empirical procedure that arbitrates competing models or hypothesis. Scientists use experiments to investigate predictions derived from explicit theories. They use them demonstrate the outcome that would occur when a particular factor is manipulated. In engineering they are used to test theories and hypotheses about how physical processes work under particular conditions (Mayir et al., 2016). In medicine experimental units are randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition where one or more outcomes are evaluated. Field experiments are often used in social science and economic analyses of education and health interventions. Agricultural research uses randomized experiments to test the comparative effectiveness of different fertilizers. This way, experiments are used to test theses and confirm theoretical formulations.
Mayir, B., Doğan, U., Bilecik, T., Yardımcı, E. C., Çakır, T., Aslaner, A., ... & Oruç, M. T. (2016). Why scientists perform animal experiments, scientific or personal aim?. Turkish Journal of Surgery/Ulusal Cerrahi Dergisi, 32(4), 256.