a) Suppose you are a manger of a bureaucratic organization so what are the six characteristics which you must consider to run your organization properly? Elaborate them briefly.
b) Define the deviance and the social control. Also discuss the types of social control in detail.
Bureaucrats undertake specialized jobs that need training and competence. Personnel that have been properly trained can do their tasks quickly. The disadvantage of specialization is that bureaucrats frequently cannot (or will not) "work out of class," that is, perform work that is outside the boundaries of their job description.
A bureaucracy's structure is known as a hierarchy, and it consists of layers ranging from the lowest-level worker to the highest-ranking CEO. Each level has distinct authorities and responsibilities.
Formal norms govern how bureaucracies operate. These instructions specify how all duties within the organization, or within a certain tier of the hierarchy, are to be carried out. The guidelines are frequently referred to as standard operating procedures (SOP) and are documented in procedure manuals. Bureaucrats spend little time in making suitable choices when they follow the rules.
Deviance is defined as behavior that deviates from social standards and elicits unfavorable social reactions. Crime is defined as conduct that is regarded sufficiently serious that it violates formal laws forbidding such conduct. Social control refers to how a society attempts to prevent and punish norm-violating conduct.
Direct and Indirect Control
According to Karl Mannheim, control can be both direct and indirect. Direct control is conducted by main groups such as family and peer groups who praise or criticize an individual's behavior. Secondary groups such as traditions, conventions, institutions, and so on exercise indirect control.
Positive and Negative Means
According to Kimble Young, there are two kinds of methods. One is a positive method, such as praise, rewards, renown, and respect. Another type of means is negative, which may be found in the form of criticism, punishment, and disgrace.
Social Control through Force and Symbol
Lumby defined social control into two types: force and symbol. He believes that through using symbols, he can inflict influence on humans. He includes praise, prizes, groups, stares, criticism, and propaganda, among other things.
Conscious and Unconscious Control
Bernarol divided it into two categories: conscious and unconscious. Conscious social control is produced by society (law), but unconscious social control is followed by individuals who pay no attention to it and embrace it instinctively, i.e. conventions and traditions.
Formal and Informal Control
Formal control is created and enforced by some authority, such as the government, in order to maintain order. Informal refers to unwritten laws and regulations that are defined by informal authority such as criticism, sociability, public opinion, and so on.
Control by Constructive and Exploitative Means
It comprises education and social changes, but exploitation entails control by threats, intimidation, and censorship.
Real and Artificial Control
An individual puts artificial social restraint on himself without the power of society. It is also known as self-control. While true control is imposed on individuals by society, and they are compelled to follow these laws due to fear of penalty.