Question 2 a) Ethics defines what is right or wrong, good and bad. What differentiates good ethical behavior from bad ethical behavior is when one has to either “talk the walk” or “walk the talk”. In illustrated concrete terms, compare the two above expressions. AN(10 Marks) b) To what extent can you differentiate Professional Ethics from General Ethics? AP(5 Marks) c) Cybercrime is any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computers systems and the data processed by them. Briefly discuss any two categories of cybercrimes within the African context
Difference between good ethical behavior and bad ethical behavior
Good ethical behavior is described as the character that observes most of the standards which are accepted to the universe (DeMatthews, D. E., & Serafini, A. 2019). A good illustration of exemplary ethical behavior is that of a student who works very hard to research for their eventual assignment and utilize the text citations and references to gain higher earnings. Good ethical behavior is an accepted norm since it does not oppose social standards. Most people would observe this behavior as allowable. In contrast, Bad ethical behavior, on the other hand, is understood as the measures that oppose the social standards or function that are contemplated as intolerable to the universe (DeMatthews, D. E., & Serafini, A. 2019). An excellent example to explain this is when students utilize plagiarism on their final report to achieve more grades. This act is considered an opposition to the social standards, and most people would observe that the reaction is unethical.
Examples of exemplary ethical behavior involve integrity, fairness, honesty, and the majority of positive characters accepted and embraced in society by social standards ( Berman, F., & Cerf, V. G. 2017). Good ethical behavior comes with a beneficial impact on society that involves better employee motivation in an organization and many more benefits. Examples of bad ethical behavior consist in lying in the organization or any other state, stealing and robbery of the materialistic things, corruption due to greed of possessing higher positions, violation of the standards, Failure to be loyal going against organizations rules and regulations, and many more ( Berman, F., & Cerf, V. G. 2017). Unethical behaviors significantly affect the being of the organization. The effects of bad ethical behavior on the organization are that the clients would avoid the organization's products and persuade others to stop purchasing assets from the organization ( Berman, F., & Cerf, V. G. 2017). This effect will be a significant loss to the organization since they will experience a remarkable decrease in sales, hence a decline in profits and decreased organization prices.
Difference between professional ethnic and general ethnic
Professional ethics are concepts that rule the conduct of the person or the group in the work environment. Just as the principles, professional ethics gives orders on how an individual is required to take action toward other individuals and the organization in such surroundings (Kusumaningrum et al.,2019). Professional ethics differs based on various professional examples; professional ethics connected to the engineering experts will vary from those related to medical experts. Professional ethics gives multiple advantages to the universe, such as it raises confidence in professional reliability. It is advantageous to the customers as they provide greater clarity and assurance about how their occurrence will be controlled (Kusumaningrum et al.,2019). It is also beneficial to the professional fraternity since they give a similar knowledge of proper operations, which constructs cooperation and enables the equal disciplinary process. It is also helpful to the profession.
On the other hand, general ethics is the branch of the theory that aims at the idea of conduct. It corresponds to the area of view and ethical ethics ( Bottalico et al.,2019). It is concerned with the solving of the disputed quiz of human behavior. It can expound as the idea of acceptable and unacceptable, good or destructive behaviors. Examples of general ethics involve honesty, loyalty, respect and self-worth, accountability, and many more. Available ethics are applied in professional ethics. Professional ethics means that widespread ethics cuts across professional ethics ( Bottalico et al.,2019). Professional ethics narrow down to ranges of professions but uses examples from the general ethical behaviors. From the available ethics, there are both advantages and disadvantages caused by acceptable and unacceptable code of conduct in the society or the organizations that will deter the progress of the individual in the organization and the community at large.
Categories of cybercrimes
Email and internet fraud is the type of cybercrimes encountered in the modern African society. Internet frauds utilize internet facilities or software with internet available to the cheaters or otherwise take benefits of them (Buil-Gil et al.,2021). Internet fraud is experienced through various methods such as Business E-mail Compromise, whereby expertise scams the focused organizations working with foreign providers and the organizations that frequently execute wire transfer remittance (Buil-Gil et al.,2021). Another method through which scammers lured and rob people is through data breaching. Data breaching happens at the peculiar and the corporate degree, including sensitive, secured, or trust data that is duplicated. Denial of favors is another method of internet fraud that involves the disruption of the permitted user's approach to any system or network (Buil-Gil et al.,2021). There are more other methods of internet fraud that include the email account comprise, malware, spoofing, and ransomware. The most occurring occasions of internet fraud involve credit card fraud, internet auction, on-delivery of merchandise, and many more.
The second category of cybercrimes is theft and sales of the company information. This cybercrime involves stealing data from the company’s database, servers, and devices. This type of company stealing is a significant menace for the trading of all sizes and can arise from both interior and exterior. Many organizations encountering such stealing can agonize from ransomware demands from the assailant (Buil-Gil et al.,2021). Companies can have their data held captive by the defrauders, and regaining it back will cost a lot to the company, which is not the best mean of solving the problems. Another suffering is steep recovery price, reputational harm and client harassment, and many more (Buil-Gil et al.,2021). Information stealing occurs due to broken networks, destroyed servers, internal threats, and publicly available data (Buil-Gil et al.,2021). There is a various example of information-stealing that was experienced in yahoo and more others. However, this information-stealing can be avoided by protecting internet access, controlling the endpoint, monitoring employee activity, limiting internet access, and deploying information preventions.
DeMatthews, D. E., & Serafini, A. (2019). Do good principals do bad things? Examining bounds
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Berman, F., & Cerf, V. G. (2017). Social and ethical behavior in the internet of things.
Kusumaningrum, D. E., Sumarsono, R. B., & Gunawan, I. (2019). Professional ethics and teacher teaching performance: Measurement of teacher empowerment with a soft system methodology approach. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, 5(4), 611-624.
Bottalico, L., Charitos, I. A., Kolveris, N., D’Agostino, D., Topi, S., Ballini, A., & Santacroce, L. (2019). Philosophy and Hippocratic ethic in ancient Greek society: evolution of hospital-sanctuaries. Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences, 7(19), 3353.
Buil-Gil, D., Miró-Llinares, F., Moneva, A., Kemp, S., & Díaz-Castaño, N. (2021). Cybercrime and shifts in opportunities during COVID-19: preliminary analysis in the UK. European Societies, 23(sup1), S47-S59.