Using the conflict, functionalist and symbolic interactionist explain with suitable illustration the inevitability and universality of social stratification and deviance
Social stratification is the categorization of people in the society based on their social-economic factors such as level of education, ethnicity, wealth, income, social status, or power among others. However social stratification takes a diverse definition when it is examined from different sociology perspectives such as functionality, conflict theory, and symbolic interactions.
According to Davis and Moore 1945, functionalism assume that social stratification is inevitable and necessary to influence people to work hard and acquire outstanding knowledge, skills, and intelligence to fit in the most important occupations in society. For instance, a job of a clinical officer is more essential and requires special skills and knowledge than a mortuary attendant or hospital cleaner.
Based on the Karl Marx conflict perspective, social stratification results from unequal opportunities, discrimination, and prejudice against vulnerable groups such as the poor, women, and racism. Karl Marx emphasizes the concept that the ruling class shapes and even control the ideas of the society to ensure that they maintain the existing order and weakens chances for the poor to challenge their opinions. Therefore the social stratification is neither essential nor inevitable.
According to Thorstein Veblen 1899 to 1953, symbolic interaction implicates people's lifestyle, daily interaction, understandings, and conceptions of themselves. Nevertheless, symbolic interaction does not justify the existence of stratification, rather it validates how stratification affects people's lifestyles and their interaction with others.