a) Since the outbreak of coronavirus in Ghana, one of the main goals of the government is to curb the spread of the disease. Briefly discuss any three main characteristics of laws that can be enacted to shape citizens’ behaviors country wide in an attempt to stop the further surge of COVID-19 cases.
b) On January 25, 2021 a high court in Accra dealt with three different cases:
Case 1: Fordjour took Ahmed to court for non- payment of rent.
Case 2: GRA took Melcom to court for non-payment of taxes.
Case 3: Giz construction company Ltd took the ministry of road to court for non-payment of road project.
As a student of Law and Society, how can you categorize these cases and what do they entail?
c) Throughout history law has evolved. From hunting and primitive tribal societies with no parliament and no courts, law has become a mechanism of social change in contemporary society. Discuss any three theories that had so far shaped the evolution of law in the society
a) Screening, containment , and prevention strategies are all used to control outbreaks. The elevated body temperature associated with fevers caused by the coronavirus is detected with a device such as a thermometer during screening. Containment is implemented in the early stages of an outbreak with the aim of tracing and isolating those that have been infected as well as implementing other steps to prevent the disease from spreading further. When containing the disease is no longer feasible, efforts shift to prevention, which involves taking steps to slow the disease's spread and lessen its impact on the healthcare system and community. It's possible that a mix of containment and mitigation strategies would be used.
b) Case 1: Fordjour took Ahmed to court for non- payment of rent.-Civil case
Case 2: GRA took Melcom to court for non-payment of taxes.-Criminal case
Case 3: Giz construction company Ltd took the ministry of road to court for non-payment of road project.-Civil case
c) i)THEORY OF NATURAL LAW
The oldest of all theories is natural law theory. Philosophers such as Heraclitus, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle founded it in Greece. Other philosophers such as Gairus, Cicero, Aquinas, Gratius, Hobbes, Lock, Rousseau, Kant, and Hume followed suit. These philosophers also discovered that there are two types of laws that control social interactions as a result of their research into the relationship between nature and society.
ii) POSITIVE LAW THEORY
Impossible or analysts law theory are other names for positive law theory. It distinguishes between what "is" and what "ought" to be the law. It believes that law is a rule created and implemented by the sovereign body of the state, and that there is no need to use justification, morality, or justice to decide whether or not a law is legitimate.
iii) Private property, according to Marxists, is the base for the emergence of law and government. They claim that property was the catalyst for the formation of social groups, with those who possess the means of production being able to manipulate those who do not by enacting laws protecting private property.