With concrete examples, briefly explain the following forms of participation:
Sarah White came up with four forms of participation. Each form defines didfferent perceptions and interests of the participants.Instrumental participation is the effective use of community skills and knowledge in the implementation of a project- sees the community as the means to achieve the stated end/desired results. For example, community participation in public health policies to improve health hygiene and proper sanitation in the homes can considered instrumental participation.
Transformative participation is participation that results in the empowerment of the participants, leading to structure and organisational alterations that consequently lead to marginalisation and execution. The power holders are in solidarity with the less powerful to take actions and shape decisions. For example, a community of tea farmers is involved in a meeting to discuss improvement strategies of tea farming and tea sales can be considered transformative participation.