Communalism is a sociological system of government in which independent communities participate in federation. The causes of communalism include the presence of communal parties, legacy of the past, poverty, cultural invasion, conversion from one religion to another, as well as failure of the ruling government.
- Assimilatory: Assimilation of various religions.
- Retreatist-reformation: Retreatism involves the rejection of culturally-accepted goals and the conventional means of attaining them. Reformists advocate gradual changes rather than abolishing them.
- Retaliatory: Other communities revenge the mistakes of other tribes.
- Separatist: Separatists support the separation of particular groups from the larger community on the basis of ethnicity, gender, or religion.
- Secessionist: Secessionists favor formal withdrawal from membership of a federation, such as a political state.