Answer to Question #105879 in Sociology for Thandekile

Question #105879
Discussing different systems of the Bronfenbrenner model that informs the implementation of inclusive education in South Africa
Expert's answer

Urie Bronfenbrenner developed the ecological systems theory of human Development. He

(Bronfenbrenner )believed that a person's development was affected by everything in their surrounding environment. He divided the person's environment into five different ecosystems : the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macrosystem, and the chronosystem.

1. The Microsystem

This is the system closest to the person and the one in which they have direct contact e.g home, school, daycare, or work. A microsystem typically includes family, peers and/or caregivers. Here,relationships bi-directional i.e your reactions to the people in your microsystem will affect how you treat them hence is the most influential level of the ecological systems theory.

2. The Mesosystem

It consists of the interactions between the different parts of a person's microsystem. It's where a person's individual microsystems do not function independently, but are interconnected and assert influence upon one another hence having an indirect impact on the individual e.g a relationship between your parents and your teachers will either have a positive or negative impact on ones development and interaction with either party.

3.The Exosystem

The exosystem refers to a setting that does not involve the person as an active participant, but still affects them eg decisions that have bearing on the person, but in which they have no participation in the decision-making process.

4. The Macrosystem

This is the actual culture of an individual. The cultural contexts involve the socioeconomic status of the person, his ethnicity or race and living in a still developing or a third world country e.g being born to a poor family makes a person work harder every day.

5. The Chronosystem

This includes the transitions and shifts in one's lifespan,it also involves the socio-historical contexts that may influence a person e.g how divorce, as a major life transition, may affect not only the couple's relationship but also their children's behavior.

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