Answer to Question #49519 in MatLAB | Mathematica | MathCAD | Maple for waqas

Question #49519
how we convert an insulator to conductors?
Expert's answer
Conductors are materials having a low resistance so that current easily passes through them. The lower the resistance o f the material, the more current can pass through it. The most common conductors are metals. Silver and copper are the best of them. The advantage of copper is that it is much cheaper than silver. Thus copper is widely used to produce wire conductors. One of the common functions of wire conductors is to connect a voltage source to a load resistance. Since copper wire conductors have a very low re­sistance a minimum voltage drop is produced in them. Thus, all of the applied voltage can produce current in the load resistance. It should be taken into consideration that most materials change the value of resistance when their temperature changes. Metals increase their resistance when the temperature increases while carbon decreases its resistance when the temperature increases. Thus metals have a positive temperature coefficient o f resistance while carbon has a negative temperature coefficient. The smaller is the tem­perature coefficient or the less the change of resistance with the change of temperature, the more perfect is the resistance material. Materials having a very high resistance are called insulators. Cur­rent passes through insulators with great difficulty. The most common insulators are air, paper, rubber, plastics. Any insulator can conduct current when a high enough voltage is applied to it. Currents o f great value must be applied to insulators in or­der to make them conduct. The higher the resistance of an insulator, the greater the applied voltage must be. When an insulator is connected to a voltage source, it stores electric charge and a potential is produced on the insulator. Thus, insulators have the two main functions: 1. to isolate conducting wires and thus to prevent a short between them and 2. to store electric charge when a voltage source is applied.

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