Ethical decision-making strategies that guided the Athenians in their decision-making include rationality, intelligence, facts and empirical evidence. They prioritized gaining and maintaining power and disregarding the consideration of morals and ethics in conducting their affairs. They wanted to invade Melos and force the island to become its tributary state. According to them, failing to capture Melos would make them appear weak and powerless in the eyes of their subjects, hence the siege of Melos.
Ethical decision-making strategies that guided the Melians in their decision-making include hope, prioritizing morality, cooperation and interdependence among states. They supported dialogue and were of the belief that God will intervene and help them as they are the ones upholding justice and acting with morality. In the belief of cooperation and interdependence among states, they thought the Spartans would come to their rescue.