Answer to Question #221685 in Political Science for Nana A

Question #221685
1. With the aid of an example, briefly explain how decentralized local governance can help
achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Eleven (SDG - Goal 11) in Ghana.

2. How does New Public Management shape perceptions of governance and decentralization
Expert's answer
  1. Decentralization of local governance aims to bring the government closer to the people and to increase transparency and accountability. In this environment, a local government acts within the overall policy parameters set by the central government, but it operates autonomously in relation to how it carries out its functions. United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Eleven aims to provide access to safe, affordable, accessible, and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons. In Ghana, assemblies in districts are mandated with opening up smaller linkage roads within the district to open up the districts but the roads within the national grid are left to be handled by the national government. This will necessitate the opening up of the feeder roads which will easily help in assisting the achievement of SDG 11 by 2030.
  2. New Public Management (NPM) is an approach to running public service organizations that are used in government and public service institutions and agencies, at both sub-national and national levels. Some NPM reforms used private sector companies to deliver what were formerly public services. It is reflecting a movement away from the old values and norms of public sector administration. NPM is brought in order to strengthen its governance i.e. accountability and transparency. It is contributed to the fact that improving public sector governance is the primary focus of real-world reformers. It aims at ensuring that the public sector institutions are efficient in public service delivery meanwhile exercising participatory management.  NPM is closely linked to decentralization, with the two reform types seen as complementary in theory and often linked in practice. Decentralization aims to shift decision-making authority to lower levels within the government structure, closer to the site of implementation which is highly encouraged by the NPM approach since it will help in reducing bureaucracies in the public sector.

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