Answer to Question #215540 in Political Science for Sindi

Question #215540
Define and explain poverty and inequality. Then, discuss the following causes of poverty and
inequality:
• Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)
• globalisation
• educational inequality
• terms of trade and trade barriers
1
Expert's answer
2021-07-12T03:37:01-0400

Inequality is concerned with the entire distribution of well-being, whereas poverty is solely concerned with the lower end of the distribution – those who are poor (McKay, 2002). Inequality can be defined as unequal distribution of what,  unequal distribution of who, and unequal distribution of time (McKay, 2002).

• Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)

The policies of international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the  World Bank have contributed to the debt and poverty of many developing countries.

For many years, their programs have been heavily criticized for causing poverty. Furthermore,  developing or  third-world countries have become increasingly reliant on wealthy ones. Despite the IMF and World  Bank's claims that they will eliminate poverty, this is the case.

globalization

Globalization according to Luke Martell is “the integration of poor countries into a world economy of open competition” (Martell 2017, 148) .Its process allows hundreds of people to live in the comfort of not having to worry about food, money, health care or education. They are lucky enough to take such basics for granted and to be oblivious to the gap of inequality and poverty (Bardhan 2006) By clarifying the beliefs of anti-globalists and presenting how neoliberal policies in the 1980s failed to become effective in  developing nations, globalization has made the world a better place and lessened the gap   between the West and the "rest."

educational inequality

A competent education system helps a child's social, emotional, cognitive, and communication abilities develop. Education programs also aid in the development of skills and knowledge.

terms of trade and trade barriers

As trade reforms have helped to reduce income disparity between nations, they have also resulted in polarization in income distribution in some areas, with large increases in within-country income inequality. The latter is most likely to blame for the current anti-international trade sentiment. Trade is a driving force behind economic development and prosperity.


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