Answer to Question #211724 in Philosophy for hailee

Question #211724

Analyse the weaknesses of Act and Rule Utilitarianism as methods of resolving moral dilemmas. (20 marks)

Expert's answer

Utilitarians believe that the purpose of morality is to make life better by increasing the number of good things (pleasure and happiness) in the world and decreasing the number of bad things (pain and unhappiness). They reject moral codes or systems that consist of commands or taboos that are based on customs, traditions, or orders given by leaders or supernatural beings. 

Utilitarianism's primary weakness has to do with justice. A standard objection to utilitarianism is that it could require us to violate the standards of justice. In resolving moral dilemmas, it faces various weaknesses as; Utilitarianism seeks to predict the consequences of an action, which is impossible. Secondly, Utilitarianism fails to identify that we have certain duties or obligations to others. Moral actions like happiness are subjective and thus someone may find happiness in cake, another may find it in murder. Lastly, it is impractical to measure happiness or pain as it depends on someone's perception as there is no standard measure to determine extent.

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