According to Ornsteins & Hunkins, modern philosophy is a school of thought based on research findings. Modern thought is based on various accepted facts. Traditional philosophy on the other hand has certain aspects that have not been property explored and were based on myths, norms, beliefs. Modern philosophy is formal, has written influence and has areas of specialization unlike the traditional philosophy.
Under the Perennialism concept, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization. These ideas contain the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Teaching these unchanging principles is critical. Humans are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed.
Reconstructionism/critical theory, The reconstructive theory is also known as the social reconstructionism. The reconstructive concept is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.