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Now suppose that our message units are digraphs in an N - Letter alphabet. Find a formula for the number of different affine enciphering transformations there are. How many are there when N = 26, 27, 29, 30?

What is the largest three digit number that you can make if you use 20 stripes?

You intercept the message "KVW?TA!KJB?FVR."(The blanks after? and R are part of the message,but the final is not.You know that a linear enciphering transformation is being used with a 30- letter alphabet, in which A-Z have numerical equivalents 0-25, blank=26, ?=27, !=28, .=29.You further know that the first six letters of the plain text are "C.I.A". Find the deciphering matrix A inverse and the full plain text message.


A 33​-term series is written using only the integers +9 and −2. How many such series can be written that have a sum of​0?


The number of series that can be written is 1 107 568.

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Can you please provide a process for solving this question? It may involve permutations and combinations.

1.1 On which very old object does a table of prime numbers appear? 

Number of ways an animal can travel from A to C via B, if there are 3 routes from A to B and 5 routes from B to C

For the function: F(W,X,Y,Z) = "\\prod" M(0,3,4,6,7,9,11,15):

a) identify the essential prime implicants

b) Write the minimal sum

with the aid of an example, explain how even and odd parity work and give an example application where they may be useful.

For the functions below:

i) G (W,X,Y,Z) = Σm (1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11) + d (0, 3, 5)

ii) F (A, B, C, D) = Σm (7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15) + d (4, 11)

iii) F (A, B, C, D) = πM (2, 8, 11, 15) + d (3, 12, 14)

iv) F (W, X, Y, Z) = πM (0, 2, 6, 11, 13, 15) + d (1, 9, 10, 14)

a) Identify the essential prime implicants

b) Write the minimal sum/product

c) Implement with NAND gates only

d) Implement with NOR gates only

Draw the multiple-level NOR circuit for the following expression: CD(B + C)A + (B"\\bar{ C}" + D"\\bar E" )

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