Answer on Question#47896, Management, Other
As a Manager what method you consider more effective forreinforcement, positive by providing reward or negative by giving punishment and why?
In order to solve a variety ofbusiness situations Manager (leader) has power and influence. Since the manager has authority over subordinates, they are dependent on him for the volume of work, empowerment, promotion, increase of the salary, and the social satisfactions. However, subordinate in some way has authority over the head. This can manifest itself in the ability of subordinates to perform work in time; influencing other people, on which the director depends; transfer of the necessary information. Therefore, the manager must maintain a reasonable balance in the collective power.
Head is the leading organizer andmanagement system. Management of groups and collectives takes the form of
governance and leadership. These two forms of governance have similarities.
We consider the most common theory ofleadership. Theory identifies three styles of leadership:
Authoritarian style of leadership -is characterized by rigidity, demanding, unity of command, the prevalence of
power functions, strict control and discipline, focus on results, ignoring the
social and psychological factors;
Democratic style of leadership -based on collegiality, trust, informing subordinates, initiative, creativity,
self-discipline, awareness, responsibility, promotion, publicity, orientation,
not only the results but also on the means of achieving them;
Liberal leadership style -characterized by low demanding, connivance, lack of discipline and rigor, the
passivity of the head and the loss of control over subordinates, giving them
complete freedom of action.
Management style is a style ofmanagement behavior in relation to subordinates, allowing them to influence and
force to do what is necessary at the moment. Management styles are influenced
by the specific conditions and circumstances. In this connection we can
highlight the "one-dimensional", i.e. caused by one, somehow factor,
and "multi-dimensional", i.e. taking into account two or whiter
circumstances when building relationships "boss-subordinate"
A prerequisite for the decision ofvarious "one-dimensional" management styles theory became the "X" and "Y" authorized by Douglas Murray McGregor. According to the theory of "X" lazy people initially and as soon as possible try to avoid work. They completely lacking ambition, so they prefer to be leaders, not to take responsibility and seek the protection of the strong. To force people to work hard, we need to use enforcement, total control and the threat of punishment. However, according to McGregor, people are not by nature, but because of poor living conditions and hard labor, that began to change for the
better only in the second half of the twentieth century. Under favorable conditions, the same man becomes what he really is, and his behavior reflected a different theory - "Y". In accordance with it in such circumstances, people are willing to take responsibility for the case, moreover, even aspire to it. If they attach to the objectives of the company, they will be willing to
be included in the process of self-management and self-control, as well as at work. And this is the communion function is not coercion, and rewards associated with the achievement of the goals.
Based on the above information, we can note the following if we want to choose between rewards and punishments,
the choice will be based on the following considerations. The collective is characterized bysignificant degree of responsibility and commitment, well organized, quick to respond for the emerging changes. It is assumed that we judge the majority.
We choose the democratic style of leadership. Thus, the decision in favor of the promotion techniques, it will encourage everyone to improve the quality of their work, to eliminate shortcomings, to rise professional skills and, of course, material rewards.