1. Describe the structural, cultural, and human resources variables that are necessary for innovation.
Important structural variables include an organic-type structure, abundant resources, frequent communication between organizational units, minimal time pressure, and support. Important cultural variables include accepting ambiguity, tolerating the impractical, keeping external controls minimal, tolerating risk, tolerating conflict, focusing on the ends rather than means, using an open-system focus, and providing positive feedback. Important human resources variables include having high commitment to training and development, having high job security, and encouraging individuals to be idea champions.