Answer to Question #52062 in Other Management for Godvictor
There are no cultures that exist separately. In the course of its life activity, she has to constantly refer to the past, or, or the experience of other cultures. This appeal to other cultures has been called "the interaction of cultures." Based on this interaction, the simple fact the communications of cultures occur in different "languages".
In the field of social psychology and communication, the term interpersonal communication, usually refers to the communication that takes place between people originating from the same cultural environment; in this sense it is synonymous with the term intra-communication. The term intercultural communication refers to the exchange of knowledge, ideas, thoughts, concepts and emotions between people from different cultures. Numerous studies of cross-cultural evidence that the content and results of diverse intercultural contacts are largely dependent on the ability of the participants to understand each other and reach agreement, which is mainly determined by the ethnic culture of each of the communicating parties, the psychology of people which is dominant in a particular culture values.
Culture has a profound effect on verbal language. Each language is a unique system of symbols, which shows what the culture considers as important. In many languages, there are numerals that indicate the characteristics of the calculated objects and different languages may have different basic systems for the transmission of numerical relations. Culture affects not only the vocabulary of the language, but also its function or pragmatics.
According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, culture influences on the structure of thought processes. Although some research for many years put this hypothesis into question, it was received considerable support in regard to the influence of the grammar and syntax of the language on thinking. Research on bilingualism also demonstrated the close relationship between culture and language, assuming that the media allow for multiple languages in our mind different cultural systems when they speak the appropriate language.
There are significant differences between cultures in how and what means of communication are used when communicating with other cultures. Thus, representatives of individualistic Western cultures pay more attention to the content of the messages that said, rather than what is said. Therefore, their communication in a lesser degree dependence on the context, for crops such cognitive style which is characterized by the exchange of information, in which the requirements are considerable fluency, accuracy there are applying the concepts of propositional logic. Representatives of such cultures tend to develop their language skills.
Individualism of some crops causes them to speak clearly and to put forward their arguments directly to provoke a reaction from the opponent.
In contrast, in collectivist cultures of East type in the transmission of information people are more inclined to pay attention to the context of a message, the fact with whom and under what circumstances are spoken. This is particularly evident in the form of a new emphasis messages, just as it is said, rather than what is said. On this basis, communication in the eastern cultures characterized by vague and unspecific language, an abundance of rough shapes statements (such as "likely", "maybe", etc.). That is why the Japanese in business relationships usually are talking "about the bush", long arguing about everything, not only about the main subject of communication. This strategy allows them to learn more about the intentions of partners to tune in to the main theme or resist, without dropping the merits of its partners.
A large number of observations and research in the field of intercultural communication allows us to conclude that its contents and the results also depend largely on prevailing in any culture, values, norms of behavior, attitudes, etc. In the relationship between culture and communication is their mutual influence on each other. For example, each culture has its own representation of politeness. In many Arab countries is considered extremely impolite to ask about something counterparty unless we are sure that it can give an accurate answer. If Americans just say what I think, for the Japanese or Arabs, it is important not to let their partner blushed because they had asked something to which they could not answer. Therefore, in Japan, as well as throughout the Arab world is considered extremely impolite to answer unequivocally someone "no." If a person does not want to accept the invitation, he replies that he does not know because he has a lot to do. The West in this way also tends to avoid specific answers there are still more and expected answers. In Asian cultures such direct behavior may cause a termination of the relationship.
Consciously or unconsciously throughout their lives, people are part of various socio-cultural groups. Each group has its own micro-culture (subculture) as part of the parent culture and it has both similarities and differences. The differences may be due to social attitudes, education, traditions and other causes. Subcultures are based on mutual self-perception of their members, defined racial, religious, geographical, linguistic, age, gender, employment, family affiliation of their members. Depending on this kind of accessories they adhere to a particular behavior. The determining factor in the communicative behavior can serve as belonging to any non-governmental organization, has its own rules, regulations, principles and models of communication. Each organization has its own set of traditions and rules that directive or indirectly requires from the members of the organization to form communication with each other and with other organizations. For example, an organization that puts its reputation in the first place, will experience some discomfort when dealing with the organization for which the more important are the other characteristics. In this case, organizational norms have a great influence on the style of communication members, their self-esteem, and the efficiency of interaction with representatives of other organizations.
Culture not only affects on communication, but itself subject to its influence. This occurs most often in the process of involving in culture, when a person in one form or another communication learns the norms and values of the culture.
Indian child growing up in a house where women eat after the men also generates its own culture. Jewish teenager, who serves as a guide in the Jewish Passover ceremony, learns the culture of their people and at the same time involved in its development and conservation. French boy, who is given cider at dinner, also learns the traditions of their culture. Little Egyptian, who explains that his uncle's behavior brought disgrace the family, generates values and norms of their behavior. Thus, reading, listening, watching, exchanging views and news with acquaintances or strangers, we influence their culture, and this effect is made possible by means of one or another form of communication.
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