FDI flows are increasing at a considerable size. Choose any two sector of your choice and collect the past five years data, tabulate the five years FDI inflows in India. Give the reasons for the successes and failure in that sector.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country. FDI inflows to India remained sluggish, when global FDI flows to EMEs had recovered in 2010-11, despite sound domestic economic performance ahead of global recovery. The paper gathers evidence through a panel exercise that actual FDI to India during the year 2010-11 fell short of its potential level (reflecting underlying macroeconomic parameters) partly on account of amplification of policy uncertainty as measured through Kauffmann’s Index.
FDI inflows to India witnessed significant moderation in 2010-11 while other EMEs in Asia and Latin America received large inflows. This had raised concerns in the wake of widening current account deficit in India beyond the perceived sustainable level of 3.0 per cent of GDP during April-December 2010. This also assumes significance as FDI is generally known to be the most stable component of capital flows needed to finance the current account deficit. Moreover, it adds to investible resources, provides access to advanced technologies, assists in gaining production know-how and promotes exports.
A perusal of India’s FDI policy vis-à-vis other major emerging market economies (EMEs) reveals that though India’s approach towards foreign investment has been relatively conservative to begin with, it progressively started catching up with the more liberalised policy stance of other EMEs from the early 1990s onwards, inter alia in terms of wider access to different sectors of the economy, ease of starting business, repatriation of dividend and profits and relaxations regarding norms for owning equity. This progressive liberalisation, coupled with considerable improvement in terms of macroeconomic fundamentals, reflected in growing size of FDI flows to the country that increased nearly 5 fold during first decade of the present millennium.