Hugh Trevor Roper vigorously argued that Africa, prior to European contact was without wheel, the plough, or transport animal ; without writing and without history. Dreowing on the views of American thinkers Carter G Woodson and Web Dubois, as well any relevant information from learning units 1 and 2, critical discuss Roper's assertion.
Hugh Trevor Roper's argument may hold some truth or not based on how an individual describes or perceive the meaning of history. Because there were no written records to provide the history of African before the civilization and introduction of writing literacy, Africans had means of keeping a record of the past. African American historian referred to as Carter G Woodson had a controversial opinion to oppose Roper's ideas by explaining that history is both oral, written, or any form such as artifacts that can be alluded to past events. On the other hand, WEB Dubois was a historian and social critic who advocated for racial harmonies and coexistence who authored many books to reduce the racial gaps between the American African and the whites. Dubois's sentiments and critics could accept Roper's concepts to describe Africans as individuals who had no history. Most interestingly, he denounced his American citizenship to assume Ghana's citizenship until his death to show to the world that continents belong to all human races.