1) What was the Congress of Vienna. What was its goal?
The Congress of Vienna was an international diplomatic conference that reorganized the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor, Napoleon I, and occurred from November 1814 to June 1815. It was held in Vienna, Austria and constituted ambassadors of the various European states. The immediate background of the Congress was the defeat and surrender of Napoleonic France which had been marked by over twenty years of continuous war. The objective was to settle critical issues in Europe that had emerged from the Napoleonic Wars and the French Revolutionary Wars and to provide a long-term peace plan. The European Great Powers had 3 main goals: to prevent future French aggression, to restore a balance of power and to restore European royal families to their thrones that they held before the wars. The major powers of Europe – Austria, Britain, France, Prussia and Russia, were conservatives and aimed to restrain or end the republicanism and revolution which had characterized the constitutional order of the old European regime as it threatened to upset the status quo. The reconstitution was the most comprehensive treaty Europe has ever experienced in history and established a framework for European politics, which lasted until World War 1.