Answer to Question #191392 in History for MISHACK THUKWANE

Question #191392

Analyse the reasons why France experienced continuous political instability in the period between 1814 and 1852

Expert's answer

Political instability is described as the mechanism by which a country's or nation's political existence or environment abruptly shifts or fails. When a state or region's political status is uncertain due to a strong probability of change or disruption, we refer to the state or region as having political uncertainty. It is a well-known fact that political unrest impedes a country's growth and success. A peaceful political environment is essential for a nation to evolve and progress. In brief, France faced a host of social and economic problems at the end of the 18th century, which culminated in a series of constitutional crises dubbed 'The French Revolution.' This resulted in further complications (both nationalism and liberalism had their origins in the French Revolution), as well as a quarter-century of near-constant conflict throughout Europe.

           The most influential nation in Europe decapitated the sovereign, experimented with fledgling independence, then an empire/military regime, and came dangerously close to conquering Europe until being vanquished - twice - and an uneasy restoration to monarchy enforced. By contrast, the subsequent 40 years (1814–52) were relatively prosperous. Louis XVIII was a somewhat capable king; Charles X took six years to abdicate; and, although Louis-Philipe might have been a respectable ruler in another century, he played a tough hand poorly by the 1840s. To be sure, 18 years is not a poor inning. Nonetheless, France saw revolutions in 1830 and 1848 with very little violence, and the transition of authority was much less violent and frightening than when Louis XVI abdicated. France's true time of upheaval and chaos began well before the revival.

           France has had 15 consecutive cabinets since the Fourth Republic's constitution took force in January 1947, fewer than eight years ago. Government crises, that is, times during which there was no government at all (one cabinet resigned and its replacement was not yet approved), lasted more than six months. These two sentences illustrate how much civil turmoil has progressed in contemporary France. This is not a recent occurrence. Between 1789 and 1946, France was governed by thirteen separate constitutions, not including interim governments. The longest-lasting, proclaimed in 1875, was the Third Republic, which had 93 new administrations in 65 years. However, such uncertainty has much more severe implications nowadays, as the magnitude and breadth of France's challenges necessitate greater consistency in policy.

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