Different empires in the Middle East and North Africa—Persians, Macedonians, and Romans. (Focusing on the period from 632 (the year of Muhammad’s death) to 750 (the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate)).
In what ways were the Arab conquests of the region similar to these precursors?
Most of the significant expansion occurred during the reign of the Rashidun from 632 to 661 CE, which was the reign of the first four successors of Muhammad. The caliphate, a new Islamic political structure, evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates. Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries.