1) What specific conditions and problems, according to King, does the African American community of Birmingham face?
2) How does change happen historically, according to King?
3) What does King say about the white moderates, especially among the clergy, who claim to support the civil rights movement?
4) How does King describe the internal tensions or divisions within the Black community?
5) What does King mean by “non-violent direct action”?
1.According to King the African American community of Birmingham faced racism injustices, he wanted the authority to remove the ‘’whites Only’’ and the ‘’Blacks Only’’ signs in restrooms and on drinking fountains. They also faced poverty and unemployment.
2.King believed that change happens through a continuous struggle and not relying on the fact that change is inevitable. He was a well-known civil-rights activist who strongly believed in the nonviolent protests. He helps form the tone for this movement and as a result a lot of legislations against racial discriminations were passed.
3.King says that he is disappointed with the white moderates who are more devoted to order than to justice. According to King the white moderates prefer a negative peace where there is no tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice. They think that they can set the timetable for another man’s freedom. King says that they live by a mythical concept of time and advices the Negros to wait for a more convenient season. He talks about their shallow understanding which is frustrating compared to misunderstanding of ill will.
4.King describes the internal divisions within the black community as comprising of two groups. The first group is a force of complacency that is made up of Negroes who, are so drained of self-respect as a result of long years of oppression that they have adjusted to segregation. Part of this group also are a few middle-class Negroes who because of a degree of academic and economic security and because in some way they benefit from segregation have become insensitive to the problems of the masses. The other group is a force of bitterness and hatred which comes close the advocating violence. This group is nourished by Negros frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination. It is made up of people who have lost faith in America with little Christianity and who have concluded that the white man is an irredeemable devil.
5.King said that the use of nonviolent direct action was to seek to create a crisis and establish such a creative tension that a community that has constantly refused to negotiate, is forced to confront the issue being raised.