What was the Pax Romana—especially with regard to economy and society? In what ways did it promote the economic, social, and cultural integration of the Mediterranean? Is it comparable to the other large empires of the time, especially the Han dynasty in China?
Pax Romana literally meant "Roman peace," referring to the time period from 27 B.C.E. to 180 C.E. in the Roman Empire. This 200-year period saw unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire, which spanned from England in the north to Morocco in the south and Iraq in the east. During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire reached its peak in terms of land area, and its population swelled to an estimated 70 million people. Similarly, the staple crops of Roman farmers in Italy were various grains, olives, and grapes. This system allowed both Republican and Imperial rulers to gain popularity with the masses through free grain distribution and also help to feed the legions at no direct monetary cost. In the Classical era, both Rome and China are expanding their empires. What both Rome and China shared was that they both built road networks which eased trade and communication throughout the vast empire.
Also, The Roman and Han Empires were vast realms kept under control by vast state machinery and ruling over a large part of their respective acumen. The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty faced similar problems of barbarian invasions and internal infighting. However, culturally, they were also different, in that the Han Dynasty was based on Confucian philosophy, while the Romans worshipped many gods and believed in strict military discipline. The Romans were more aggressive than the Chinese, who were often just as content to rely on diplomacy and foreign trade.