Explain Agricultural technologies and infrastructures of the river valleys; know all the major river valleys.
The earliest civilizations settled on river valleys because rivers were attractive locations. They provided steady water supply, eased transportation, land was fertile for agriculture and economic activities such as fishing and hunting were made possible. The first civilizations made lasting contributions to future civilizations through innovating agricultural technologies and infrastructures in the river valleys. River valley civilizations developed: the sail, the plow, bronze tools and weapons, the wheel and architectural innovation. The sail enhanced boat movement along the rivers, which boosted trade between civilizations. The plow helped the farmers to turn the soil into greater quantities thus establishing better irrigation systems and yielding more crops. Tools made of bronze were stronger than previously used copper and stone. The wheel advanced transportation and helped artisans to make pottery. There was also development of calendars, writing, mathematics and organized governments at the river valleys. These technologies spread through the river valleys as a result of trade, migration and war.
Major river valleys included: Mesopotamia which was situated along the rivers Euphrates and Tigris in the Middle East, Ancient Egypt which was located on the Nile Valley, Indus Valley along the Indus River in India and the Yellow River civilization in China.